process in linux
network connectivity

It supports a variety of operating systems, including OpenVMS, IBM, etc. Simply by offering Microsoft SMB capability, it is typically used to connect Linux machines to Microsoft network resources. For every client or user using the SMB or CIFS protocol, it offers more secure, reliable, and quick file and print services. When the RAM is not large enough to accommodate the processes, Linux uses additional space known as swap space to hold concurrently running programmes. A programme runs from memory so that the processor can swiftly fetch data. If you have more running programmes than the RAM can accommodate, they are placed in the Swap Space.

TCP and UDP are two transport layer protocols used in networking. TCP provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of data packets, while UDP provides a connectionless and unreliable data transfer. The 'iptables' command is used to configure the firewall rules on a Linux system. It can be used to allow or block traffic based on various criteria, such as IP addresses, protocols, and ports. The 'iptables' command is typically used in conjunction with the 'firewalld' service, which provides a higher-level interface for managing firewall rules.

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CLI stands for Command Line Interface that allows the user to type declarative commands for instructing the computer to execute operations. However, users who are already familiar with using GUI find it hard to remember commands including attributes that come with it. Swap space is a definite amount of space used by Linux for temporarily holding some programs that are running concurrently.

This tool is very useful for debugging user-space applications to determine which library call is failing. It is also capable of receiving signals for segmentation faults, etc. This is a great example of the more clever Linux interview questions.

VCenter provides a centralized management platform and framework for all ESXi hosts and their respective VMs. VCenter server allows IT administrators to deploy, manage, monitor, automate, and secure a virtual infrastructure in a centralized fashion. To help provide scalability , vCenter Server leverages a back-end database that stores all the data about the hosts and VMs. Balance-alb or 6 – Sets an Active Load Balancing mode for fault tolerance & load balancing.

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I can imagine many challenges lying ahead of me, which I am excited to experience. And therefore, I am eager to invest my five years time learning all facets of the job towards professional advancement. As much as possible I would like to be in this company for a long time. For as long as management sees me as an asset, I am willing to stay. Grep a search command that makes use of pattern-based searching.

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There are various types of tools and commands to manage the usage of swap space. In emergency mode, you are booting into the most minimal environment possible. The root file system is mounted read-only and almost nothing is set up. The main advantage of emergency mode over single-user mode is that the init files are not loaded.

What are some common Linux commands?

Linus Torvalds created Linux, an operating system that is open-source and free to use, in 1991. It is specifically made to deliver free and inexpensive operating systems to users of personal computers. It supports networking effectively and has very minimal hardware requirements. Samba is essentially a collection of open-source programmes.

DNS servers maintain a database of domain names and their corresponding IP addresses, allowing users to access websites and other resources by name rather than IP address. DNS plays a critical role in networking by providing a distributed, hierarchical naming system that makes it easy to locate resources on the internet. A network bridge is a Link Layer device which forwards traffic between networks based on MAC addresses and is therefore also refer to as a Layer 2 device.


Describe the process of setting up a Linux system as a router. Create a new VLAN interface using the vconfig command, specifying the parent interface and the VLAN ID. The DHCP server receives the request and assigns an available IP address from the pool. The IP address is assigned automatically by a DHCP server. You can use "User" and "Group" argument in your systemd unit file with the respective user which must be used to execute the service.

To create a compressed archive of the directory /home

A process state gives a broader indication of whether the process is currently running, stopped, sleeping etc. In addition to the basic file permissions in Linux, there are few special permissions that are available for executable files and directories. The mode-5 (balance-tlb) is often referred to as the adaptive TLB . For load balancing and fault tolerance, it activates TLB mode.

This is the standard system log file, which contains messages from all system software, non-kernel boot issues, and messages that go to ‘dmesg’. Dmesg is a system file that is written upon system boot. It is a way for humans to interact with computers and is also known as the Command line user interface.

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Linux is everywhere from television, smartwatch, laptop, Smartphone and much more. Any filename under Linux can have a maximum of 255 characters. This means that the whole pathname and filename could well exceed 255 characters. Lastly, DOS follows a convention in naming files, which is 8 character file name followed by a dot and 3 characters for the extension.

Linux networking refers to the ability of Linux-based systems to communicate with other systems over a network. Networking in Linux involves the use of protocols, services, and tools to enable communication between devices, share resources, and provide access to the internet. Linux networking can be used in a variety of settings, including home, enterprise, and cloud computing environments. Assuming you have these two environments installed, just log out from the graphical interface. Then at the Log in screen, type your login ID and password and choose which session type you wish to load. This choice will remain your default until you change it to something else.

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This is one of those Linux interview questions that you might be familiar with based on your experience with Windows. You see, this is a command used on both Windows and Linux. “Swap space” is just a temporary amount of memory space on Linux that is created to allow a certain program to run smoothly.

Input and output are distributed across three standard streams in the Linux environment. It is a protocol that is used to securely connect to remote servers or systems. You can use the “wc” Linux command to count the number of characters in a file. This command is used to count the number of lines, words and characters in a text file. Linux ping command is used to check connection status between source and destination.

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For an example ,if one of the ESXI cluster host memory has been utilized more than 90% and due to that lot of paging happening on that server. It applies for high contention for CPU utilization too. So vSphere DRS helps to balance the CPU & Memory utilization across the ESXi cluster nodes. VCenter Server provides a centralized management framework to VMware ESXi hosts.To access vCenter server, you need vSphere client or vSphere Web client service enabled.

If the number of linux networking interview questions to display is not specified, the first ten lines of the specified file are displayed. The asterick tells head to display the content of each file in the present working directory. When using sed to do a search and replace, its default action is to only replace the first occurrence in each line. Adding the ‘g’ makes sed replace all occurrences of the search term even when it occurs multiple times on the same line. When the sticky bit is set on a world writable directory, only the owner can delete any file contained in that directory. Because the link in bob’s directory is a symbolic link, if the file sales data in the /data directory is deleted, the symbolic link will no longer work.

From that time on, I made sure every I thing follows every detail and coordination. To calculate the size of a folder use the command du –sh folder1. Every process in the system is identified by a unique process id or pid. Use the kill command followed by the pid in order to terminate that process.

  • Script in this context refers to a computer language used to run programmes.
  • The use of shadow passwords improves system security.
  • A unique type of file known as a "hard link" points to the same underlying inode as another file.

Unmounted,Shrinking resize2fs makes the filesystem use only the first size bytes of the storage. It does this by moving both filesystem metadata and your data around. After the completes, there will be unused storage at the end of the block device, unused by the filesystem.

It is based on the Linux Kernel, and can run on different hardware platforms manufactured by Intel, MIPS, HP, IBM, SPARC and Motorola. Another popular element in Linux is its mascot, a penguin figure named Tux. It will show you all the possible way to use the command. To calculate the size of a folder uses the command du –sh folder1.

Using chmod command I can change the permissions of a file. A admin while giving permission to the users usually give normal access permission but few of the user having special permission then normal user, they are called super user. It will how the details of the users logged in to the system. The second name of a file is called a link, it’s assigned to create another link to the current file. Description of shell is huge, but yes commonly we explain it as the interpreter between the user and the machine.

The users can execute the commands before the Linux background process get completed fully. After the command, the users add an & symbol that make it a background process. The Foreground process while started by the developers run in the foreground. The developers need to wait for few minutes to get executed before providing other commands.